Elsie B. Wilkins –an early woman lawyer in MT?

Doing a routine search on newspapers.com, I found the obituary of a woman identified as “one of the first women lawyers in Montana.” In the more than 25 years I have been researching Montana’s pioneering women lawyers, I have never found a reference to Ms. Wilkins.

Great Falls Tribune, 23 December 1956

“Mrs. Elsie B. Wilkins, 86, wife of Ben J. Wilkins, 1310 6th Ave. N., and one of the first women lawyers in Montana, died Saturday morning at a local hospital where she had been a patient for four days. . . . Mrs. Wilkins was born Nov. 24, 1870, at Peru, Ind., and came to Great Falls in 1914.  Both she and her husband, who were married in 1898, were graduated from Valparaiso University Law School, Valparaiso, Ind.  Although she never practiced law, Mrs. Wilkins passed her bar examinations both in Indiana and Montana. She is believed to be Montana’s first woman lawyer.  An eastern Star at 18, Mrs. Wilkins joined Helen C. Roberts Chapter when she came to this city.  She also was a charter of the White Shrine of Jerusalem. In addition to the widower, survivors are two sons, Billy H. Wilkins and Robert B. Wilkins, both of this city . . .”

I wonder whether Ms. Wilkins passed the Montana bar examination in 1914, but never applied for admission to the bar. I have no more information about her beyond what is provided in her obituation. Her husband, Ben Wilkins, ran for police judge in Great Falls in 1947.

Does anyone have any information about Ms. Wilkins?

Charlotte H. Russel, “The Chief”

She is and always will be ‘Chief.’

The first of the “early women” professionals employed at the University of Montana School of Law was Charlotte Hough Russel, the librarian and registrar; she was at the law school from 1924 through 1950.  Prior to that, Ms. Russel became Montana “Tech’s first female faculty member, when [she] signed on as librarian and registrar” in 1909.

“Miss Russel Recovers From Illness” — Law School News Items, 6 Dec. 1937

+++++“This fall when the students of the Law School came back for another year’s work, the second and third year students were shocked to learn that the “Chief” had undergone an operation for ruptured appendicitis and that general peritonitis had set in.  Realizing that only one out of every ten persons ever recover from such complications the question on the lips of every student for days was, ‘Do you think the “Chief” will pull through?’
+++++Every student missed that cheery ‘Good morning’ and that quiet but firm reminder that certain books were due.  The ‘Mother’ of the Law School was gone; there was no one to whom we could turn for advice and help to solve our problems, whether they be problems of law or of love.
+++++This was the first time in ten years that students returned to find ‘Chief’s’ office silent and her chair vacant. This year was to be the beginning of the eleventh year of her association with the Law School and her absence was felt by the faculty as well as the students.
+++++The ‘Chief’ had just returned from a vacation at Lake Louise and Banff and a few days later was taken to Murray hospital in Butte.  She was confined to her bed on September 7 and returned to the Law School on October 25.
+++++To the new students and the rest of the campus the ‘Chief’ is Miss Charlotte Russel, but to the students of the Law School she is and always will be ‘Chief.’  Welcome back, Chief, and we hope the flood of overdue books will not cause a relapse!'”

8 July 1957 — Spokesman-Review — “Ex-Law School Librarian Dies; Charlotte H. Russel Held MSU Post 26 Years”

+++++“Charlotte Hough Russel, 72, librarian at the Montana State university law school for 26 years until her retirement in 1950, died today at a Missoula hospital.
+++++Miss Russel was born at Butte.  Her father, James Richard Russel, was a pioneer Presbyterian minister in Montana.  Her mother, Fannie Forbis Russel, crossed the plains from Missouri to Montana by ox team in 1864.
+++++For many years Miss Russel held the position of registrar and librarian at the Montana School of Mines in Butte.  In 1924, she moved to Missoula to accept the position as librarian at the MSU law school.
+++++Her years of service earned her the affectionate title of ‘chief’ with the law students.
+++++Miss Russel is survived by a sister, Mrs. Carl Jordan, Missoula. . . .”

Later that year, the law alumni association instituted a student loan fund in memory of Ms. Russel, who was described as “long-time secretary to the dean of the law school, librarian, and students’ unofficial counselor.”

I would love to hear from anyone with information about Charlotte Hough Russel!

Hollis Gay Connors, MT Bar 1952

Hollis Gay Connors, admitted to the Montana Bar in 1952, was the second woman in Montana to run for Associate Justice on the Montana Supreme Court.  Jessie Roscow was the first; she lost in the primary election in 1944.

MTStandard 5/30/1962

MTStandard 5/30/1962

3 April 1962 — Daily Inter Lake — “Helena Woman to File for Supreme Court”

+++++“Hollis Gay Connors, Helena lawyer, announced Monday she would attempt to become the first woman to serve on Montana’s Supreme Court.
+++++Mrs. Connors, 50, said she would file for the position No. 2 on the high court, the bench now held by Associate justice Stanley M. Doyle.
+++++Records indicated Mrs. Connors would be the second woman in Montana history to run for the Supreme Court. The first was Jessie Roscoe [sic], who was eliminated in the 1944 primary election. . . .
+++++Mrs. Connors said she planned to file her nominating papers April 16. She said she would seek the position for two reasons:

  • ‘Women should more actively participate in governmental affairs.’
  • ‘I feel the courts of the State of Montana belong to the people. They are there for the preservation of the personal and property rights of the people, and they must be preserved.’

+++++Mrs. Connors added, ‘If elected to this office, I would bring to the position a deep sense of responsibility, complete honesty and humility for the trust imposed by the people of the State of Montana.’
+++++Mrs. Connors was born in Fairfax county, Minn., and attended grade and high schools in Minnesota. She received her law degree in 1949 from Northwestern College of Law in Portland, Ore. She became a permanent resident of Montana in 1951 and was admitted to the Montana bar in October 1952.
+++++She has been associated in private law practice since 1959 with the Helena firm of Skedd, Harris and Massman. Before that, she was in the insurance business in Helena. She is the wife of Gene Connors of Townsend.
+++++Mrs. Connors said as far as she had been able to determine only three states now have women justices on their Supreme Courts. They are Arizona, Pennsylvania, and Hawaii.
+++++‘I don’t even mind telling you how old I am,’ Mrs. Connors told a newsman. ‘I was born in February 1912. I always said I was going to run for this office when I was 50 years old, and I meant it.'”

+++++A news article from the Montana Standard, published on 18 April 1962, reported additionally that:

+++++“The blonde lawyer will be seeking the Supreme Court seat . . . . Doyle has announced he will seek re-election. Gordon Bennett, former assistant attorney general and more recently a lawyer in Washington, D.C., has also announced he will seek the office.”

Ms. Connors lost to Justice Doyle and Mr. Bennett who advanced to the general election.  Justice Stanley M. Doyle, the incumbent, prevailed in the general election.

In 1967, J. R. Wine, Jr., Director of Montana Legal Services, appointed Hollis Gay Connors deputy director of the legal services program.  She worked with the legal services program from 1967 through 1969.

Daily Inter Lake 10/29/1972

Daily Inter Lake 10/29/1972

Hollis Gay Connors ran, as the Republican candidate, for State Treasurer in 1972.

An article in the Billings Gazette, 24 May 1972, reported that Ms. Connors listed her net worth as $27,280, made up of her home in Townsend, $20,000; her automobile, $5,700; a life insurance policy, $7,000; personal property, $2,500; and savings of $3,000. Her liabilities included a home mortgage of $5,800; personal note $3,120, and loans on life insurance of $2,000.

She “won election to the single-term state treasurer’s office over Democratic John J. McLaughlin. She tallied 89,705 votes from 662 precincts compared with McLaughlin’s 78,340.” Havre Daily News, 8 November 1972.

15 April 1973 — Independent Record — “State Treasurer Says She’s Liberated”

+++++“‘I consider myself to be a liberated woman,’ says Hollis Gay Connors, Montana’s treasurer.
+++++With that self-image it’s not surprising to find that the women’s liberation movement doesn’t hold any great attraction for the 61-year-old attorney. But neither is she opposed to what she feels should be its basic aim — to treat an individual as an individual.
+++++Ms. Connors’ views on the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) were not solicited during the emotional legislative battle over ratification of the proposed amendment to the United States Constitution although she is one of only two women in major state elective offices.
+++++She views the oversight with more detached amusement than hurt feelings after a lifetime spend working in fields predominantly occupied by males — law, politics and insurance.
+++++‘I don’t think ERA will add much to women’s rights,’ she said, ‘and it may take away some of their favored property rights.’
+++++Still, if asked, she would have urged the legislature to ratify the women’s equal rights provision in the supreme law.
+++++‘The voters of Montana have already put this through in their new constitution,’ Ms. Connors said. ‘So I don’t understand why the legislature didn’t go along with it in the federal constitution if they were aware of the state constitution.’
+++++She was referring to a new section added to the Montana Bill of Rights guaranteeing nondiscrimination on account of sex.
+++++That provision was not enough for the treasurer to support the new state charter.  She voted against ratification as did a big majority of her fellow townspeople in Townsend, 30 miles southeast of Helena. It’s the county seat of Broadwater County, rural, mostly conservative and Republican.
+++++Her feeling is that archaic provisions of the old document could have been amended.  ‘But the new one can be amended too,’ she said.  Ms. Connors said with ratification she ‘has no strong opinions’ one way or the other about the new constitution.
+++++She has lived the past 12 years in Townsend with her husband, a funeral director, and practiced law there and in capital city.  The treasurer has continued practicing law since she began her official state duties Jan. 1.
+++++‘I have found nothing in the law that prevents me from keeping up my law practice,’ she said.  ‘And I haven’t found any conflict of interest.’  The treasurer is paid $15,000 a year.
+++++Ms. Connors is not the first woman treasurer in the state’s history but she well may be the last of either sex.
+++++The new constitution eliminated the treasurer as a constitutional officer, leaving it up to the legislature to determine whether the position shall be continued in law or abolished and its remaining functions transferred to other departments.
+++++The Republican thinks that eliminating the office would be a big mistake.
+++++‘It should be separate and probably elective to preserve the system of checks and balances,’ she said.
+++++Self-interest is not involved. By law the treasurer cannot succeed herself.  A grandfather clause protects all incumbent office holders when the new constitution goes into effect.
+++++The incumbent feels it is common sense to have an independent officer handling the money between those agencies collecting it and those spending it.
+++++In recent years the office has been stripped of many of its functions which were transferred to the state controller, Department of Administration and Board of Investments.
+++++But it remains the custodian of the state’s securities and money.  The daily cash flow is erratic but on the average the office handles $5 million to $6 million daily.
+++++‘This is the hub of government,’ Ms. Connors smiles. ‘This is where the money is.’
+++++The 1972 Legislature passed a resolution asking the Legislative Council to study the office of treasurer and make recommendations so that some action can be taken before the 1976 election.
+++++The lawmakers didn’t bother to ask the incumbent for any advice or benefit of experience.  Ms. Connors said she has a few ideas about the office and toyed with the idea of making some recommendations.
+++++‘But it would be a labor of love,’ she said, ‘because under the circumstances (Democratic control of the legislature), I don’t think they’d give much consideration to it.’
+++++One idea, she said, is to turn the office into a state bank such as has been done in North Dakota.  ‘I’m not sure exactly how they name the director,’ she added.
+++++Ms. Connors pointed out the functions of her office are the same as a bank — to take in money and to pay it out.
+++++The treasurer presides over her department from a modest office in the extreme southwest corner of the Capitol behind locked doors, buzzers and alarm systems.
+++++The physical isolation is matched by political isolation. As one of only three Republican elected state officials, she is not in the mainstream of the Democratic state executive branch.
+++++Ms. Connors’ successful campaign for treasurer was not the first time she has run for state office. In 1962 she finished a respectable third in a six-way nonpartisan primary for associate justice of the state supreme court. She was the only woman candidate.
+++++The treasurer said she was never aware of any prejudice or discrimination in her campaigning because she was a woman. If anything she feels it is an asset.
+++++‘The voters are a little more courteous,’ she explains, ‘although they expect as much from you.’
+++++As an equal opportunity employer, the treasurer’s staff consists of four men and five women. ‘I like men,’ she laughs, ‘I like people.’
+++++‘I realize there is discrimination against women,’ Ms. Connors said. ‘I’m in favor of equal opportunity — equal pay for equal effort.’
+++++But she said she is ‘not gung-ho’ about some extremes of the women’s liberation movement. ‘Like changing he to she and his to hers in the statutes would make no difference,’ the lady lawyer said.
+++++Her personal struggle has been against economics, not discrimination.
+++++Ms. Connors, a native of Minnesota, came to Montana as a child. Her father was a merchant in Bozeman and Moore.  At the age of 18 she ventured into the depression age of 1930 as a cashier-clerk for a major insurance company at $16.50 per week and was glad to have the job.
+++++Work as a life underwriter and legal secretary and stenographer followed until, in 1944-45, she began studying law at the Northwest College of Law, Portland, Ore.
+++++Ms. Connors graduated in 1949 and was admitted to Montana practice in 1952 after passing the bar exam and an equivalency exam for the bachelor’s degree she didn’t have.
+++++If there was any discrimination because of her sex along the way, ‘I wasn’t aware of it.’
+++++But one aspect of the feminine revolution has caught her fancy. She likes the designation, ‘Ms.’
+++++‘It’s a little silly but that’s what they’ve picked,’ she said. ‘It does make one an individual.'”

“Sweet Young Things in Marshal’s Office”

9 February 1938 — Helena Independent —
+++++“Sweet Young Things in Marshal’s Office Are Up Against It”

+++“Three sweet young things in the office of Deputy U. S. Marshall E. Liebing were disgruntled yesterday.
+++They are going to have to get their hands dirty. Because T. D. Quinn, administrative assistant to the attorney general, has ordered that all deputy U. S. marshals must be fingerprinted at once and their cards kept on file at Washington, D. C.
+++The news wasn’t disconcerting to Deputy Lieberg or Deputy O. D. Clark but to Deputies Lulu Witala, Josephine Harris and Lorene Burks it was. They didn’t like the idea of dipping dainty finger tips (and what about those lacquer nails?) into that gooey finger-printing ink. Or maybe they didn’t like the idea of never again being unable to duck an unwelcome boy friend because if your finger prints are on file in Washington you can always be found.
+++But those objections don’t mean a thing. Today the dainty little finger tips will be dipped into the ink and that will be that.”

Josephine Harris Sherwood, raised in Helena, schooled at Stanford University and Hastings Law College, was admitted to practice in California in 1901 and Montana in 1902, the third woman admitted to practice in Montana. In 1902, she married a lawyer who lived in San Francisco, California, and she settled there, although there’s evidence she practiced for a brief time in Montana, in 1902-1903. Sometime after 1908, she returned to Montana. For what appears to be a brief time (1937- 1938), she worked as a Deputy U.S. marshal in Helena. She died in 1942 in New York City.  PLEASE, anyone having more information about JHS, share it with me.

Ella Knowles’ Tidbits

2 March 1893 — Sioux Valley News

+++++“Miss Ella Knowles was a candidate for Attorney General of Montana. Being a woman of brains and character, and a good lawyer, she came near being elected upon her merits. Since the election, letters have been pouring to her address containing offers of marriage from every style of masculine idiot . . . . The circumstance affords opportunity for comment, but deference to members of the gentler sex naturally impels the leaving of this pleasant duty to them.”

5 November 1894 — Chanute Daily Tribune

+++++“Attorney Mrs. Ella Knowles of Montana does not seem to care whether or not she has jumped the hedge bounded woman’s sphere. She has just pocketed a $10,000 fee, and can pay her way in whatever sphere may happen to environ her.”

+++++Many news articles of this time reported Ms. Knowles’ $10,000 fee as the largest to date ever earned by a woman attorney.

“Nursery in Her Office”

Lest modern feminists believe that the idea of bringing children to work or creating a child care center in the office is recent, the following news article should convince us otherwise.

21 May 1905 — Pittsburgh Daily Post

“Woman Lawyer Takes Her Children Along with Her When She Works”
+++++“Husband is Her Partner”
++++++++++“Believes Youngsters Should Be Taught Practical Business Methods”

+++++“‘Nothing on earth would induce me to wear a shirt front. I hate anything approaching the masculine in woman’s dress,’ remarked, with emphasis, Mrs. William G. Mulligan of the Bronx, lawyer and real estate dealer.
+++++Mrs. Mulligan, who is almost frail in appearance, wore a fashionably cut dark blue taffeta silk gown, a white lace stock collar fastened with a diamond ornament and a dark blue straw that turned up in the back and down in the front after the prevailing mode. Her appearance, taken in connection with the anti-shirt front remark, might lead one to the conclusion that she is by no means entitled to a front seat among the new woman fraternity. Which only goes to prove that it is never safe to size up a woman by her clothes or by the remarks she may make on the clothes question.
+++++For in spite of her disdain of the masculine shirt front, Mrs. Mulligan entertains and puts into practice views on home life and the bringing up of children which would make the average woman, new or old, open her eyes, and which are not at all suggestive of the butterfly type of woman. For instance, Mrs. Mulligan turns a cold shoulder to afternoon teas and fashionable society functions of any sort, although before her marriage, arrayed in $200 gowns, she did duty at many.
+++++++++++++++++++++++++Prefers to Work
+++++She gets no pleasure out of them, she says. They bore her. That she is sincere in the matter is proved by the fact that although her husband is abundantly able to support her luxury, she elects to trudge to a law office every day with him and work there from morning till night.
+++++It is her views on the bringing up of children that stamp her as a woman of originality.
+++++‘Since the news got out that we enlarged our offices so that our children could spend most of the day here instead of at the house,’ she said to a reporter, ‘we have been overrun with visitors who seem to think it the most remarkable thing in the world that a mother and father should plan not to be separated from their children all day long.’
+++++As she spoke she removed her modish hat and seated herself in a rocker in a small sitting room at the rear of her law offices. This room opens into a long yard laid out with flower beds. At the end of the yard is a building designated as a gymnasium. Before next winter it will be properly equipped. Just now the apparatus consists of only a punching bag and plenty of space to romp in.
+++++++++++++++++++++++++School at the Office
+++++Upstairs at what used to be the rear law office, is a modern school outfit — low tables, chairs and desks, a blackboard, and a schoolmaster who from 10 to 12 and from 1 to half past 2 o’clock, five days in the week, teaches the three ‘R’s’ and some other things to his three small nieces.
+++++The fourth little Mulligan girl, aged 3 who is the baby of the family, is not yet enrolled in the school. Nevertheless, she, like her sisters, spends most of her day at the law offices, thus leaving the big roomy home of Mr. and Mrs. Mulligan, less than a quarter of a mile away, in able possession of two servants and the children’s grandmother.
+++++At noon the children, in care of a nurse, go home for a hot dinner and get back again in time for afternoon school.
+++++‘When we occupied only one floor of this building for our offices,’ continued Mrs. Mulligan, ‘there was no room for the children, but by taking in the basement floor and controlling the yard privileges we can now have them with us without being crowded.’
+++++‘And you do not think it somewhat unusual that two busy lawyers and real estate dealers should care to combine a nursery and schoolroom with their regular business?’ Mrs. Mulligan was asked.
+++++‘Perhaps it is unusual, but I don’t see why it should be. I am never happier than when with my children, never quite satisfied when away from them.’
+++++++++++++++++++++++++The Old-Fashioned Idea
+++++‘Some persons might suggest that it is your duty to stay at home with your children and let Mr. Mulligan manage alone the business end of the partnership,’ was suggested.
+++++‘I know that is the old-fashioned idea, and it goes along with another once popular belief that necessarily there is something unfeminine about a married woman who chooses to follow a business or professional career when her husband is abundantly able to provide for her, especially a woman who has children.
+++++‘When we were married my intention was to stay at home like the ordinary housewife and to that end Mr. Mulligan took over the business, which has since been entirely in his name. But I was well known in this section and many of the old clients kept asking for me.
+++++‘I have had five children, but their coming did not interfere with my office work. And let me say right here that although I handle perhaps as much business as does my husband, I have never had the least desire to wear the breeches or carry the pocket book. I have no separate bank account, and whenever I need a dollar or a thousand dollars I must ask my husband for it. Were it not for his forethought probably all the real estate we own would be in his name, but he always insists in having every deed made out in our joint names.’
+++++++++++++++++++++++++Good for the Children
+++++‘Do you think it good for the children to be brought up in a business atmosphere?’
+++++‘That’s a big question, and one I have pondered a good deal, coming to this conclusion: Under such circumstances children may be robbed in a measure, so to speak, of their baby days and baby pleasures; but, on the other hand, they are going through an experience and trials they are bound to meet a little later on.
+++++‘A girl who is carefully shielded from every trouble, who is brought up in a rose colored nursery and never allowed to take part in anything more serious than a doll’s tea party; who is kept away from the dinner table and out of the company of adults except on rare occasions; whose adult relatives think of nothing but how to bring pleasure and amusement into her life, has a very poor chance, I think, of developing into a young woman able and willing to cope with problems which are not always rose colored.'”

“Proves Judge Is No Legal Eagle on Hats”

In 1888, in a letter to her female colleagues in the Equity Club, Lelia Josephine Robinson commented,  “One problem is not yet settled entirely to my satisfaction, and that is:  
Shall the woman attorney wear her hat when arguing a case or making a motion in court, or shall she remove it?


“bewitching white straw hat trimmed with tulle & feathers” — Times, 7/30/1897

+++++How frivolous the “bonnet question” seems, especially considering the fortitude of women who entered the legal profession in the late nineteenth century.  It raised, however, a weightier concern — “how to be at once a lady and a lawyer.”  Social convention dictated that ladies wear hats in public; professional convention dictated that lawyers remove their hats when entering the courtroom:  What was the woman lawyer to do?
+++++From 1895 through the 1960s (!!!), newspapers covered “the bonnet question,” reporting on how judges responded to (i.e., ignored, allowed, forbade) women’s “headgear” in the courtroom. Below is a news article, written by a fashion editor, about a confrontation between a woman lawyer and a male judge in 1963.

Des Moines, Register — 23 Nov. 1963
+++++“Considering the often depressing qualities of courtrooms, no woman would suppose there lived a judge who wouldn’t welcome a brightening touch amidst the gloom.
+++++But Judge Irving H. Saypol of New York State’s Supreme Court not only held attractive brunette lawyer Enid K. Gerling in contempt of court, he went on to give a written opinion unfavorable to her hats.
+++++Referring to a hearing more than a year ago, he cited ‘a large picture hat, more appropriate for an afternoon tea, or a lawn party, or some such social.
+++++Then he added, concerning the recent case in which he cited Miss Gerling for contempt:
+++++‘This time we have another grotesque hat situation, some kind of flamboyant turban with the many colors of Joseph’s coat, misplaced in any courtroom . . . There has been, and I can conceive, no other woman lawyer so encountered.
+++++However, conduct in the pattern of hats, bizarre and tending to courtroom disruption and perversion, is something no self-respecting judge can tolerate.
+++++Alas, Judge Saypol was no legal eagle when it came to describing hats. Miss Gerling, a well-dressed but conservatively attired lady, brought forth the offending hats for my inspection and the judge lost his case.
+++++The so-called picture hat was a Breton, which as any woman knows is a tailored hat with upturned brim, certainly nothing like a picture hat.gerlinghat The turban, actually a toque, was in several shades of one color, pink, not many colors, and hardly flamboyant.turbinlawyer
+++++‘I’m too small for exaggerated hats,’ said Miss Gerling, who was wearing a brown tweed suit and a gold velvet snap-brim hat with a crush crown and a small stitched brim that allowed her short, curly hair to show.
+++++A professional woman should wear hats,’ she said firmly. ‘They lend an air of status. I have about 40, and I buy a new one every time I get mad at a judge.
+++++She paused, reflected and said impishly, ‘If I get really mad, I buy six at once. Certainly none of the men lawyers mind my hats, nor the judges. Of course, I don’t wear one during jury trial. I want the jury to see my fact.’
+++++Miss Gerling is a remarkable woman on several counts. In college she paid her way with a mail order business. Then she was an air traffic controller, one of those brains who talk planes down onto the field.
+++++After getting her law degree she wanted to go into international air law but wound up in criminal law, which she has practiced for 11 years.
+++++Judge Saypol declared that she was ‘baiting’ the court with her hats, but Miss Gerling has personal attributes that don’t need the help of hats. Her eyes, complexion and personality could do all the baiting she wanted to exercise.
+++++The day I went to pay the fine for contempt I knew all the newspapers would be there, so I deliberately didn’t wear a hat,’ she said.
+++++‘I love clothes, but I wouldn’t think of dressing for court in anything more startling than a suit or jacket costume. I do wear what I call sentence hats. They’re the ones a judge has complimented previously. When I have to come to court to hear a sentence given, I wear that one again.’
+++++Judge Saypol’s hat judgment opens fascinating possibilities.
+++++Will he take it on himself to say what hats Miss Gerling may not wear in his court? Does he just plain not like girl lawyers? Perhaps this courtroom drama has only seen its first chapter.
+++++++++Florence de Santis, Editor of the Fashion League”

For much more on “the bonnet question,” see Virginia G. Drachman, Women Lawyers and the Origins of Professional Identity in America 23, 30, 127, 177-78, 260-261 (1993).